Plans to develop next-generation lead batteries have been revised and extended by the Consortium for Battery Innovation (CBI).
The revised ‘Technical Roadmap’ lays out plans for the global battery research organisation to spearhead research collaborations with governments, universities, end-users and lead battery manufacturers to maximise innovation potential of the technology.
The original 2019 document set out goals to improve dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) in automotive 12V and low-voltage EV battery applications at 2A/Ah, while improving high-temperature durability performance.
The new roadmap has added extended research targets up to 2030 for motive power, industrial, UPS and e-bike applications.
The roadmap sets out goals to improve cycle life, calendar life and round-trip efficiency in energy storage systems (ESS), while reducing acquisition and operating costs.
Matthew Raiford, senior technical manager of CBI told BEST the roadmap was a “living document”, and the organisation aimed to update and make new goals periodically.
He said: “In terms of the 2019 roadmap, CBI and the industry is on track to deliver on KPIs for 2022 or has already delivered on them.”
Initial lead battery goals
The CBI’s first technology innovation roadmap was published on 9 October, 2019, with clear goals to increase the performance of advanced lead batteries by up to five times by 2025.
Its research and innovation targets included: improving dynamic charge acceptance of lead batteries in micro and mild-hybrid cars from 0.5A/Ah to 2A/Ah. This goal remains the same in the new roadmap.
Plans also include improving cycle life for batteries in stationary applications to 6,000— up from 1-3,000 last year— and charge acceptance to around 95% by 2025.
The roadmap also set out aims to increase partial state of charge (PSoC) at 17.5% depth of discharge in enhanced flooded batteries (EFB) from 1,500 to 3,000 in the next five years.
For EFB PSOC the organisation has changed its guidance, and based the required performance around the micro-hybrid cycle performance classifications (M1, M2, M3) set out in the European lead-acid starter battery standard EN 50342.
Raiford said: “For automotive, it is not technically necessary to go past 2.0A/Ah, but we have added a new DCA test sequence into how we discuss our DCA KPI. The new addition is the HTE (high temperature endurance) test and long-term water loss and high-temperature durability associated with the HTE. The HTE is a more accurate test based on field simulations of lead battery performance on highway and urban drive cycles.
“For clarity, the reason DCA is staying at 2.0A/Ah, is that batteries at that DCA value accept all the instantaneous power produced by the alternator. The DCA value of 2.0A/Ah is important, but new research is now focused on producing not only high DCA batteries with good performance in cold crank amps, but also perform well in new high temperature tests.
“The 2025 and 2028 goals in the new roadmap are where the industry now needs to go or maintain.”
“For ESS there are many changes. As our understanding of the market has increased, CBI has marked out KPIs related to the techno-economic drivers that key stakeholders in the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and EU Energy commission (EU EC).
“Cycle life while important, is just a piece of the puzzle. Ultimately $/kWh/energy throughput and $/kWh are the drivers of interest and we have given specific goals for lead batteries. Furthermore, very aggressive targets have been set out by the USDOE and EU EC as a hallmark to impending funding opportunities.
“Our 2030 stretch target aims to align our industry to these goals, making it necessary for high amounts of innovation to meet these goals.”
Growing market demand
CBI has combined the latest market analysis with a scientific vision setting out how batteries can deliver a clean and sustainable future.
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) predicts global growth of energy storage systems to triple to reach 160GWh by 2030.
Research commissioned by CBI estimates the demand for all lead batteries will be around 490GWh by 2030— this includes 68GWH for SLI, 12GWH for stationary and 7GWH for motive applications.
The roadmap highlights the huge potential to increase lead battery performance and sets targets in each application area, from mobility to renewable energy storage – to increase the lifetime and efficiency of batteries in each sector.
In addition, the superior circularity, safety and reliability of lead batteries is adding further credibility to the nationwide push to be a centre for sustainable battery technology.